National Parks in England will be protected from fracking unless there are ''exceptional circumstances'', ministers announced today.
The policy was unveiled as the latest bidding process for shale companies seeking licences to explore for oil and gas was opened.
The Government has committed to going ''all out for shale'', claiming development of the gas and oil resource is needed to improve energy security, boost jobs and the economy and bring down energy prices.
But opponents say it causes disruption and damaging development in the countryside, can cause minor earthquakes and the risk of water pollution, and that exploiting new oil and gas resources is not compatible with tackling climate change.
Ministers have unveiled new guidance which means applications for developments in National Parks, Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, World Heritage Sites and the Broads should be refused other than in ''exceptional circumstances and in the public interest''.
The news has been welcomed by the New Forest National Park Authority.
Paul Walton, head of environment and rural economy said: “The New Forest is a world-class landscape with over half of it recognised as being internationally-important for nature.
“We welcome the Government’s intention to safeguard National Parks to ensure these iconic landscapes continue to receive the highest status of protection.
“As with all major forms of infrastructure, oil and gas development should only be permitted within our finest landscapes in exceptional circumstances, where the reasons for National Parks being created would not be compromised and where it can be demonstrated that they are in the public interest.”
The Department of Energy and Climate Change said where an application in these areas is refused and the developer launches an appeal, Communities Secretary Eric Pickles will consider whether to make the final decision himself to ensure the policy is being properly applied.
Business and energy minister Matthew Hancock said: ''Unlocking shale gas in Britain has the potential to provide us with greater energy security, jobs and growth.
''We must act carefully, minimising risks, to explore how much of our large resource can be recovered to give the UK a new home-grown source of energy.
''As one of the cleanest fossil fuels, shale gas can be a key part of the UK's answer to climate change and a bridge to a much greener future.
''The new guidance published today will protect Britain's great National Parks and outstanding landscapes, building on the existing rules that ensure operational best practices are implemented and robustly enforced.
''Ultimately, done right, speeding up shale will mean more jobs and opportunities for people and help ensure long-term economic and energy security for our country.''
But Greenpeace warned that the National Parks policy would not appease campaigners against fracking.
Louise Hutchins, Greenpeace UK energy campaigner, said: ''The Government has fired the starting gun on a reckless race for shale that could see fracking rigs go up across the British countryside, including in sensitive areas such as those covering major aquifers.
''Eric Pickles' supposed veto power over drilling in National Parks will do nothing to quell the disquiet of fracking opponents across Britain.
''Ministers waited until the parliamentary recess to make their move, no doubt aware of the political headache this will cause to MPs whose constituencies will be affected.''
Friends of the Earth's energy campaigner, Tony Bosworth, said: ''Today the risk of fracking has spread. This threat to the environment and public health could now affect millions more people.
''Those who thought that fracking would only happen in other places will now worry about it happening on their doorstep.
''Fracking is increasingly politically toxic and is far from being seen as the holy grail of energy policy by those local to proposed drilling sites.''
The licences which can be applied for from today provide the first step to start drilling but do not give an absolute agreement to drill.
Planning permission, permits from the Environment Agency and agreement from the Health and Safety Executive will be required for further drilling.